Damian starts by asking us what LDT stands for. It’s Language Development for Teachers. There are different ways for describing it. He chose this because it’s the same as the name of the specialism for Delta module 3. It also emphasises the developmental aspect.
Teacher development is often split into teacher education for teaching teachers about teaching and teacher training. Teacher training is more about developing skills e.g. CELTA, Delta, Trinity, with a very practical element. Continuing professional development is everything else e.g. webinars, conferences etc. He feels that LDT overlaps between them, as it is learning knowledge but also developing skills.
He wanted to find some figures of what the numbers of NESTs and NNESTs around the world are.
Bigger numbers now, of course.
A lot of conference talks are based around the private language sector when in actual fact it’s a very small proportion of the language teaching that goes on in the world today. Damian lived in Brazil for 10 years and one of the things he was doing there was running workshops for teachers, on behalf of publishers. It was a thing they did for their best customers. Most of the teachers came from state schools with very large classes. A lot of the feedback was “this is great, sounds brilliant, but my reality of 30-40 kids, this wouldn’t work”.
There are some key issues involved here.
First of all, definitions. We should all just be called teachers regardless of where we are from (rather than NEST and NNEST etc.) Damian asked people to answer some questions via FB groups but it’s complex!
Most English spoken in the world today is as a second or foreign language. TEFLEquity are trying to raise awareness of discriminatory practices in recruitment etc.
Language proficiency is the focus of this talk. Why? Firstly, there isn’t much about in terms of published materials that does it already. Here are a few examples that do:
Most TT courses focus on methodology and skills, where there is a language component it tends to be language awareness and looking at language as a system as opposed to practical uses. There is a lack of time on these courses, as there is a lot to do and get through. Building a language component into that would take too much time. Cullen (1994) quotes Berrry (1990) quotes lots of Polish teachers saying that their main use of English was in their classroom with their students, so they don’t get to practice English much outside the classroom. The demands of CLT adds even more pressure. Most teachers that Cullen spoke to wanted it. He says this in his article:
- Is this a GE course for general improvement or an ESP course specifically related to teaching? Damian opted for the latter.
- What proportion of a course should it be? Damian wants to build it into the other components of the course.
- How to incorporate experience? Damian heard a lot of “this is great but it wouldn’t work in my situation” – how to deal with that?
Cullen sets out four approaches to LDT.
- ‘ignore’ it – do all the other development through the medium of English
- include an LDT component (does take a lot of time)
- link methodology and language work – using English as a medium of instruction but an add-on where you start to analyse the language used as well.
- make LDT central – give language lessons as you would normal but also demonstrate practice.
Next, we try some activities within this approach. E.g. look at statements about error correction and agree/disagree with them. Some of the language is highlighted:
Focus on the highlighted expressions.
- Look at the expressions highlighted in yellow. Which have a positive or negative meaning? Which mean a large/small quantity?
- Look at the expressions highlighted in green. For each one decide Does it have a positive/negative meaning? What other part of the text does it refer to? What do you think it means?
Next, Damian ‘sets up an activity’. Work in pairs. Each pair has a set of pictures that are the same but different. Pairs should describe their pictures to each other and find ten differences. Don’t show your partner your picture. Damian gives the instructions. Then we should answer questions about the demonstration.
The next activity is mini-bingo. Students write down one-word answers for themselves in the boxes and, comparing their answers in pairs, get a bingo each time theirs is the same as their partners. We are asked to practice eliciting feedback from a student who has done this activity. The first time A is going to be the teacher finding out the answers from B the student. A’s are given an extra instruction with B’s looking away!
Next, roles are changed and B’s get a different instruction.
If we’re doing this in an LDT classroom, there are then some reflective questions.
So this is partly an experiential approach, using Kolb’s cycle. We learn by doing and reflecting on what we have done. The CELTA is like a driving test, but says you are safe to be let loose on the classroom, it’s then through the years spent in the classroom that you really learn. Many teachers have many years of classroom experience, what we are doing is feeding into that experience within the circle. Teachers try things out, take them into the classroom and use them, then reflect on them.
As Kirsten Holt said in her session yesterday:
Other ideas for activities:
- keeping logs/reflective journals e.g:
- Try out keywords/key phrases in class e.g. I need you to do x rather than Do x
- Categorising phrases for different aspects of the lesson
- Technique ‘bingo’ during observations
- Encourage forums/online discussions helps with the idea of building confidence through sharing experiences
- Matching phrases used in class to a list of techniques
This is all very kind of initial, Damian’s initial thoughts, but thinks there is a lot of scope for it.